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Andragogy

pada Januari 27, 2011

From Wikipedia, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andragogy)

Andragogy consists of learning strategies focused on adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience. Originally used by Alexander Kapp (a German educator) in 1833, andragogy was developed into a theory of adult education by the American educator Malcolm Knowles.

Knowles asserted that andragogy (Greek: “man-leading”) should be distinguished from the more commonly used pedagogy (Greek: “child-leading”).

Knowles’ theory can be stated with six assumptions related to motivation of adult learning:[1][2]

  1. Adults need to know the reason for learning something (Need to Know)
  2. Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities (Foundation).
  3. Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction (Self-concept).
  4. Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives (Readiness).
  5. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (Orientation).
  6. Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators (Motivation).

The term has been used by some to allow discussion of contrast between self-directed and ‘taught’ education.[3]

Diversity and generalization

Adult learners are a very diverse[examples needed] group. Graduate students in medicine or physics may respond differently[examples needed] from executive MBA students or adults returning to complete their high school diplomas. Knowles’ theory may not hold for many groups of adult students.

Critique

Knowles himself changed his position on whether andragogy really applied only to adults and came to believe that “pedagogy-andragogy represents a continuum ranging from teacher-directed to student-directed learning and that both approaches are appropriate with children and adults, depending on the situation.” [4]

References

  1. ^ (nd) Andragogy (M. Knowles) Theory into Practice website. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
  2. ^ (nd) Andragogy Informal Education Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
  3. ^ Hansman (2008) Adult Learning in Communities of Practice: Situating Theory in Practice
  4. ^ Merriam, et al (2007). Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide, p. 87

Further reading

External links

See also


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